[Recipe] Garam Masala Spice

Ok, I absolutely love Garam Masala! It’s hasn’t always been that way.

There’s a couple reasons why I make this spice mix at home now as opposed to buying it ready-made:

  • The commercial ones are far too hot for me which completely spoils this amazing spice mix.
  • The commercial ones don’t always taste good, the recipes vary.
  • And toasted spices go rancid/change taste overtime, so by home-making you get better flavour. The commercial ones are almost always ground, and a long time ago.

So let’s get toasting!

[Recipe] Garam Masala Spice
 
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Author:
Recipe type: low-fat, whole-food, plant-based
Cuisine: South Asian, Indian
Ingredients
  • 1 Tbsp coriander seeds
  • 1 Tbsp cumin seeds
  • 1 Tbsp poppy seeds
  • 1 tsp peppercorns
  • 1 small stick of cinnamon (2-inch or small finger size) OR 1 tbsp ground cinnamon. (x 3 if you're using the weaker-flavoured Ceylon cinnamon)
  • 3 green cardamom pods
  • 8 cloves
  • 1 dried red chilli (or chilli powder added to the roasting pan towards the end of roasting to prevent it from burning)
Instructions
When toasting spices, you always want to add the spices in the order of the heaviest/bulkiest to the smallest/thinest.
  1. If you're using cinnamon sticks, set a pan/pot on medium and toast until it starts to be dark brown and fragrant. If using cinnamon powder, we'll add it at the end.
  2. Reduce the heat to between low and medium.
  3. Add the cardamom, dried chili,and the cloves. Toast for a few more minuts. Keep stirring.
  4. Add the peppercorns, toast another minute or two. Keep stirring.
  5. Reduce the heat to low/low-ish.
  6. Add the Coriander seeds, toast for another 1 minute. Keep stirring.
  7. Add the cumin seeds, toast for another 1 minute. Keep stirring.
  8. Add the poppy seeds toast for another 1 minute. Keep stirring.
  9. If using cinnamon powder, this is the time to add it. Toast for another 1 minute. Keep stirring.
  10. Off the heat. Empty the pan in a dry bowl. Let cool a few minutes and grind.
Notes
Toasted spices go rancid. So prepare only in small batches, use fresh, keep the leftover in the sealed container in the fridge and use within 1 month.

This is what you get in the end. Bliss!

Chana Masala (Chickpea Curry)

Chana Masala

Chana Masala (Chickpea curry)
 
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I started off with Hema's recipe but found it far too hot and corianderish (seed) for my personal taste. Also simplified greatly the roasting processes. I'm very happy with this recipe now. My ethnically/gastronomically-Indian partner just told me it tasted amazing, and exactly like that Chana Masala we had at that restaurant where we both thought was the best-tasting we've ever had so far in the healthy-food category. So I think my improving this recipe is over and it's time to share it with you 🙂 You'll need to make a trip to the local Indian/Asian shop to do full justice to any Indian cooking including this dish. These are the must-have Indian spices you'll only find in any Indian shops : asofetida & amchur (which is green/unripe mango powder). The rest is usually commonly found even in supermarkets.
Author:
Recipe type: low-fat, whole-food, plant-based
Cuisine: South Asian
Serves: 4~6 adult meals if served with rice
Ingredients
  • 3 cups dried chickpeas, soaked overnight
  • 3 large onions finely chopped
  • 220g of salt-free or low-salt tomato paste concentrate OR 1kg of grated tomatoes (to be reduced later)
  • A few stalks of fresh coriander (5 g)
WHOLE SPICES FOR ROASTING
  • 3 small sticks cinnamon (finger-sized or two inches)
  • 6 cardamom pods
  • 6 bay leaves
  • 1 Tbsp cumin seeds
OTHER SPICES
  • ¼th tsp asafoetida
  • 1 tsp grated ginger, densely packed
  • 1½ tsp turmeric
  • 1½ tsp cayenne (OR 1 fresh hot chilli halved lengthwise)
  • 1½ tsp unripe mango powder (look/ask for amchur in any Indian/South Asian shop, do not replace with mango!)
  • 2 Tbsp Garam Masala (or Make your own)
Instructions
  1. Put the soaked chickpeas to cook for 1h30 on medium heat in a regular pot (without a lid) or ~20 minutes in a pressure cooker. Do not stir them. They should be very soft and melt in the mouth when you press them with your tongue. Don't put too much water, ideally you wouldn't need to strain them later.
  2. Put some brown rice to cook as well to go with the Chana Masala later.
  3. Chop the coriander finely.
  4. Prepare the Garam Masala.
  5. Cut the onions finely. To save time, I use a mandoline to slice them, and a chopper (or a knife). Set aside.
  6. If you're using fresh tomatoes, grate them now to a purée. Set aside.
  7. Grate the ginger
  8. On low to medium heat, roast the spices "for roasting" for a few minutes. To prevent burning the the small/thin spices/herbs, put the biggest items first until roasted, then add the the smaller ones, so in this order: Cinnamon, cardamom, then bay leaves & cumin. Stir well, whenever it starts being fragrant and slightly smoking, add the onion immediately.
  9. Set the heat to the maximum and keep stirring the onions "dry". They will give off a lot of steam and start caramelizing.
  10. When the bottom of your pot starts being brown, reduce the heat to medium.
  11. Add either the grated tomatoes, or the tomato paste + ~1 litre of water.
  12. Add the "other spices" and the coriander, stir well and let cook for ~20 minutes. Stir now and then to prevent sticking at the bottom. Turn off the heat when the sauce is rather thick.
  13. Mix gently with the chickpeas. Enjoy!
Notes
Garnish with fresh coriander and slices of purple onion.
Serve either on rice or as a side with chapati (Indian wholemeal flatbread).

 

Low-fat Mayo, Aioli and Dips – Oil-free, Whole foods, Vegan

Traditionally mayos and aiolis rely heavily on loads of fat and animal protein.
A double punishment right from the start, only made worse by the fact that these dips serve to lubricate typically deep-fried “foods” like fries and wedges, a guaranteed stroke served on a golden platter.

Well…Good News! The experience of hot delicious, potato wedges dipped much generously in a delicious creamy aioli can be enjoyed not just in its vegan version, but also with hardly any fat at all – whether from oil, or from nuts!

GREEN BANANA AIOLI_610
So what’s the secret? Blend cooked starches! and I’ve been on a quest for good candidates in unexpected places!

Green bananas (as in unripe regular banana) are amazing bases for so many things. I used them for Ghanaian dishes as a plantain substitute for Kelewele and in Red-Red.
They’re quite bland, mildly sweet. Be reassured right away, they do not taste like banana at all. That’s precisely why they’re amazing. Both taste and texture are amazingly versatile.

This time around, I blended them, with a bit of roasted garlic flakes, some apple cider vinegar and a small amount of (optional) cashew nuts. Amazing low-fat aioli!

Make a good round of delicious, oil-free, nicely seasoned, potato wedges and enjoy!

Low-Fat Aioli – Oil-free, Whole Foods, Vegan
 
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LOW-FAT AIOLI, makes 1 half-cup ++, enough for two people to dip a large round of parboiled+oven-baked, oil-free, potato wedges!
Author:
Recipe type: low-fat, whole-food plant nutrition, vegan, oil-free, sugar-free, salt-free
Cuisine: Western
Serves: 1 half-cup, enough for 2 people on potato wedges.
Ingredients
  • 1 green banana (not yellow!), cooked "Samoan-style" that is boiled whole (in its skin) for 30 minutes, drained, cooled, and peeled. Batch boil in a big pot to use for other things.
  • 1~2 tbsp dehydrated garlic flakes (not the fried ones), dry-roasted in a pan on low until golden/brown.
  • 1 tbsp apple cider vinegar or lime/lemon juice ( or better with its flesh, not peel, lime peel is super bitter!)
  • Just enough water to blend.
  • Optional: 1 tbsp cashew nuts (7g), soaked. Must be skipped if you're recovering from any cardiovascular disease.
Instructions
  1. Blend
  2. Indulge
Notes
Play around with other flavours to make other exciting dips, mayos, bechamel sauces, etc: onion flakes, mustard seeds, chilli, lemon peel, etc...whatever health-promoting food makes your taste buds happy 🙂 Let loose the wild creative animal that you are!

[Recipe] Tomato sauce for Pizza – Low-fat – Unprocessed

pizza_sauce_610
As a kitchen-unskilled 20-year-old student on junk foods, I used to rely heavily on processed pasta sauces. I didn’t know any better.

The years passed, I slowly taught my way out of kitchen illiteracy. But one thing I kept wondering though is: “How on Earth do these  processed sauces get that wonderful Italian aroma of herbs?”. So I spied on the ingredients of tomato pastes I liked and always saw rosemary, oregano, thyme in the ingredients, among other things. But every time I used these, I ended up with a tomato paste so very bitter it was borderline inedible. The mystery was on: How to get authentic strong and appetising flavours and smell of aromatic in herbs in sauces. I soon found out by accident…

“How on Earth do these darn processed sauces get that wonderful Italian aroma of herbs?”

Why was it bitter instead of tasting/smelling of wonderful herbs?

Because oil! I figured that out only after ditching oil as part of going whole-food plant-based. It was the oil that completely ruined the Mediterranean taste of thyme, rosemary and oregano. Use those generously, and cook them in a water base,  and I promise that you will finally capture the essence of those delicious Italian smells and tastes.
These herbs are also a lot more forgiving in terms of taste when you put too much provided it’s in a water base.

[Recipe] Tomato sauce for Pizza – Low-fat – Unprocessed
 
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A sauce that has everything you want in a pizza base: it's thick, sweet, garlicky and tomatoey
Author:
Recipe type: low-fat, whole foods, plant nutrition, vegan, no oil, no salt, no sugar
Cuisine: Italian
Serves: 4 pizzas
Ingredients
  • 1 jar 500g of single-ingredient minimally-processed tomato paste (For NZ/OZ: Homebrand @Countdown/Woolworth contains salt at only 21mg sodium /100g), or the equivalent in home-reduced whole tomatoes (1.5 to 2kgs tomatoes gives 500 grams of reduced tomato paste)
  • 2 onions diced
  • 3~4 cloves of garlic chopped finely
  • 1 tsp rosemary (dried)
  • 1 tsp oregano (dried)
  • 1 tsp thyme (dried, rubbed)
  • Hot chilli: to taste.
  • Optional to adjust sweetness: Dates. If instead of sweet ripe tomatoes you get excuses for tomatoes, the hard unripe and sour stuff, you will need to balance out the sweetness. Maybe use up to ~50g dates blended until smooth with as little water as possible. To taste.
  • Optional to adjust sourness: Tamarind, lemon, or apple cider vinegar. If you get a very sweet batch of tomatoes, or like sourness, maybe use up to 1 tbsp single-ingredient tamarind paste (sweet and sour). To taste.
Instructions
  1. Cook all ingredients (except tomato paste and dates) on low-fire with as little water as possible.
  2. You want to keep this as thick as possible so this is the trick that I use: When the ingredients above are soft, use the cooking water (cooled) to blend dates.
  3. Pour the blended dates back in the pot, throw in the tomato paste and keep on the lowest setting with no cover for it to lose moisture and become thick.
Notes
Optional: If you have time, you can caramelise the onions + garlic first, by water-frying them (no oil) on slightly less than medium heat.

[Recipe] Whole-Wheat Pizza Dough – Oil-free – Unprocessed

pizza_610_WHOLEFOOD copyThis recipe was inspired from vegrecipesofindia‘s Whole Wheat Veg Pizza. I like that they used whole flour and baker’s yeast for a start. We adjusted it to remove/replace the processed ingredients (oil, sugar, salt) for improved health.

We have no issue with digesting wheat but some of our friends seriously do. So if you know a good gluten-free pizza dough that I could unprocess/wholefoodize I’m happy giving it a go => Comment or Contact.

[Recipe] Whole-grain Pizza Dough – Low-fat – Unprocessed
 
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Simple and easy recipe, lovely base for a low-fat whole-foods unprocessed pizza! This yields two oven-tray-sized pizzas. I like to understand what I'm doing instead of robotically follow recipes by the gram. So I infused a lot of rules and verifications methods in this recipe, so that people can pick up a different way of preparing food which uses your senses and intuition instead of scales and measurement spoons.
Author:
Recipe type: low-fat, whole foods, plant-based, vegan, oil-free, sugar-free, salt-free
Cuisine: Italian
Serves: 2 oven-tray-sized pizzas
Ingredients
  • 3 cups whole wheat flour (360 g) because it's enough for two pizzas.
  • 1 to 1.25 cups water or add as required (230 mL to 290 mL)
  • 2 teaspoons of active dried yeast or (1.5 tsp instant yeast)
  • 2 tbsp prune paste (blend junk-free pitted prunes + just enough water for them to blend into a paste)
  • There are tricks to put up virtually any bread you want without needing a detailed recipe like this one, see the Notes.
Instructions
  1. Warm up ½ cup of water to hot bath temperature (40~45°C), add a bit of flour (1 tsp or so) and the yeast and stir (See Notes).
  2. While the yeast is busy making babies, get busy chopping your pizza toppings or preparing the sauce.
  3. After 10~15 minutes, yeast should start to bubble, it means...it's aliiiive! Stir generously.
  4. I put all the flour I am going to use on a flat clean kitchen top, make a whole in the middle, and pour the liquids progressively in the middle and incorporate more and more of the surrounding flour. Start with yeast of course, then progressively (in two or 3 rounds no more) incorporate more and more warm water and the prune paste until you fold in all the flour.
  5. Texture of the dough should be soft enough that it doesn't crack or resist a lot to kneading, but not so watery that it will stick to your fingers and drive you mad. The dough shouldn't stick to your table.
  6. Knead for 5 to 10 minutes, no more (that's my favourite part!)
  7. Cover in an air-tight fashion in some recipient and let rise 1 to 2 hours in warm place if possible. If your oven has a warming drawer (~40°C) use it to save rising time.
  8. In the meantime, make sure tomato sauce and toppings are ready, because once the dough is ready and the oven pre-heated, it will be too late to start cutting stuff up.
  9. When dough has risen, set your oven at 200~220°C to pre-heat for about 10~15 minutes.
  10. Divide dough in two, on a baking sheet roll with a pin into whatever pizza shape you want (we make them square use all of the oven tray's surface).
  11. Lay your thick tomato sauce and toppings.
  12. Bake in a minimally-disturbed oven at the same temp. (200~220°C) for 20 min for one pizza at a time, or until your topping are all cooked and before the bottom of the pizza crust gets brown or tacky.
Notes
Activating the yeast
I like to sit my warm cups of activating yeast in a bowl of warm water (also hot bath temperature) so the yeast doesn't cool down. Leave 10 to 15 minutes, it should start.
I also like to use either spring water or pre-boiled tap water, to remove the chlorine, which may slow down the yeast.

Make-dough without a recipe
I could summarize this recipe to one number, and that is "3", which is just how many cups of flour is needed. Everything else you can easily figure out and the basic process is always the same for all breads. For most breads, water content is almost always 60~70% (rule of thumb: a bit more than half) of the weight of the flour, yeast content always about 7~8 tsp active dried yeast per kg whole-grain flour (I prefer to remember 5 tsp per 600g because I often use 600g)
Prune paste serves as a moisture-holder, one of many unprocessed moisture-holding alternatives to oil, along with date paste or applesauce. The precise amount doesn't seem to matter too much, it won't taste like prunes, so just make sure to have and use some.

[Recipe] Khadija’s Moroccan Lentils – Oil-free – Unprocessed – Vegan

preserved-lemon-alternativepreserved lemon alternative copy

Khadija's Moroccan Lentils – Oil-free – Unprocessed – Vegan
 
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Author:
Recipe type: low-fat, whole-food, plant-based, vegan, no oil, no salt, no sugar
Cuisine: Moroccan
Serves: 4
Ingredients
  • 440g dry lentils, preferably Puy lentils / French lentils soaked overnight.
  • 6 tomatoes, chopped
  • 1 large onion, chopped
  • 20 g coriander (a few sprigs), chopped
  • 20 g parsley (a few sprigs), chopped
  • zest of half a lemon, sliced off with a knife (only the yellow part, not the white inside) and cut in small bits. Do not grate!
Spices
  • 2 tsp ground cumin
  • 1 tsp ground ginger
  • 2 tsp ground turmeric
  • 1 tsp ground paprika
  • 1 tsp ground black pepper
  • 1 tsp ground chilli
Instructions
  1. Water-fry the onions until caramelised/browned. If you want to save time, skip caramelisation, just put the onions in the pot.
  2. Immediately add tomatoes, enough water for the spices to be in generous amounts of water (about 1 cup or ~ 230mL should do)
  3. Add all the spices and lemon, stir well, cover, set on medium heat and let boil for 5~10 min.
  4. Add the lentils, stir well, and fill the pot with enough water to cover a few centimetres over the top of the lentil surface.
  5. Cover only until it starts to boil, then let cook on medium heat for until the lentils are soft.
  6. Check now and then if more water is needed. You want to end with creamy lentils like in the picture, not watery nor dry either.
  7. Turn off the heat and set aside.
  8. Add the chopped greens (coriander + parsley) and stir.
Notes
Feel free to play around with adding the following (to taste):
Some salt-free concentrated tomato paste that uses only tomatoes, or more tomatoes well reduced.
Carrots
Celery
Baked shiitake mushrooms (chopped) for a bit of a chew, or other mild-tasting mushrooms. If using shiitake mushrooms, make sure to bake them first, otherwise their taste would be overpowering and throw the flavours off-balance.

Iodine in Common Edible Wild NZ Seaweeds – An Alternative to Iodized Salt!

Iodine content of New Zealand’s Common Edible Wild Seaweeds, for (low-sodium) adequate iodine intake

This article documents the amount of edible seaweeds commonly found on NZ’s shores, that adults can rely on as their exclusive source of iodine, in replacement for iodized salt. Why would anyone drop salt? That you will get a hint in the second part “The Story” but first…the facts!

It took me so much time to compile all this info together, so today is a very exciting day, finally putting this out for everyone to enjoy 🙂 Here’s the menu, and I wish you a lot of fun in foraging, and a healthy long happy life away from the unnecessary pains of hypertension! Later (in a future post hopefully) I will tell you the story of why I gave up salt completely, and how to achieve that in just about 3 months painlessly. But this post for now is more about the “how” part of staying away from salt.

This article is a work in progress. Since I am starting to have a set of actionable data, I am sharing so you can enjoy it as well.


2 SUMMARY

PART 1/2 – THE FACTS
Things to know beforehand to use the facts intelligently
Safety precautions
Seaweed preparation
Bio-variations
Absorbability
Units
References

Seaweeds Iodine/Sodium contents and daily intake

SEAWEEDS WITH LOW IODINE (FOR EATING)
– Long sea lettuce – Ulva stenophylla
– Nori – Porphyra species– Karengo (Maori)
– Wakame – Undaria pinnatifida
– Bull Kelp – Durvillaea antarctica – Rimurapa/Rimuroa

SEAWEEDS WITH HIGH IODINE (FOR SEASONING)
– Neptune’s necklace – Hormosira  banksii
– Bladder kelp – Macrocystis pyrifera – Rimurimu
– Paddle weed – Ecklonia radiata

Methods of calculation

PART 2/2 – THE STORY (of how you are bound to come to seaweeds to replace iodized salt)

Sources


 

Part 1/2: THE FACTS

Things to know beforehand to use the facts intelligently

Safety precautions

The seaweeds below are found virtually everywhere on New Zealand coasts, if one is not, another will. There is no need to go specifically to the sites listed below, those are just sites chosen by the scientists for their own reasons. In any case, do your foraging safety homework first: always have a buddy, never pull but instead cut live seaweeds so they can regrow, watch your steps to avoid sea snails on rocks, small stand-alone rocks/boulders can are not stable even if they’re big and heavy, no stream pouring nearby, no industries and boating activity nearby, no sewage discharge nearby…I can’t be thorough here on these.

Basically, this article is not a thorough coastal foraging guide. There are some specific things you may want to know for different aspects of safety, other things you may want to know to minimize your impact on the intertidal biodiversity, some sites may be tapu (considered sacred by Māori) and better left alone, etc. All I do here is document the iodine/sodium content of a few common edibles.

Also, this article focuses on iodine requirement for adults. If you need the seaweed numbers for children or adolescents contact me, I’ll be happy computing them and updating this article for you.

Seaweed preparation

The quantities below only apply to cleaned and dried seaweeds, not to wet seaweeds: not drained, not seaweeds that feel dry-ish to the touch. By dried I mean something you put effort into drying: crispy-dry if thin seaweeds or corn-chips-cracky/dry if thick just to be very clear. The cleaning to reduce salt content consists in soaking in freshwater (non-salty) baths with several water changes.

Bio-variations

Seaweeds are known to show some variation in their characteristics like nutrient content, between species even closely related ones, based on the micro-ecosystem, weather, seasons, etc…In fact this applies to all plants, but people tend to be used to the idea that all foods contain exactly what the nutritional facts state. They don’t, those are averages and estimates from ranges that sometimes are very wide! This being said, some of these seaweeds  have been measured in different places of a coherent geographic area (NZ) and at different times of the year. Also, the ranges of iodine are generally always in the same narrow range, most often.

Absorbability

Different seaweeds have different “iodine species” (different molecules that contains iodine) and they are not digested the same. So it’s difficult to know how much iodine is absorbable exactly from seaweeds in general, let alone variations among people etc. This article assumes all iodine in the plant is absorbed, it may not be the case, but this assumption provides a additional margin of safety to stay clear from excess. As for staying of deficiency, minimum iodine requirements are likely to be met at doses between the recommended daily value and the tolerable upper limit. Both will be provided.

Units

The unit below will be “mcg / g” means microgram per gram. I prefer this unit for iodine because daily requirements are expressed in micrograms and grams are something people can measure in their kitchen. This unit is the same as “mg / kg” (milligram per kilogram) or “ppm” (parts per million).

References

The little number between brackets (i.e. [1] or [5]) is to direct to the source of that information, listed below in Sources.

Seaweeds Iodine/Sodium contents and daily intake

If you found in the literature, or measured in your lab other values from these for LOCALLY HARVESTED/FARMED (in New Zealand) seaweeds named below, please comment the sources or drop me an email and I’ll get in touch with you to ask for the more info to update this article.

SEAWEEDS WITH LOW IODINE (FOR EATING)


 

Long sea lettuce – Ulva stenophylla – (Maori name?)

1_Ulva-stenophylla

Image credits: Photo: Algaebase;
Illustration: Setchell and Gardner, 1920b

More info: http://www.marinelife.ac.nz/species/1052
Note: Ulva stenophylla is a specific species of Ulva (sea lettuces). Data provided may be different for other Ulva. To illustrate that, for instance Ulva stenophylla was found to have double the protein of Ulva lactuca [1], another sea lettuce. Nothing guarantees all Ulva have the same nutritional profile.

Wild samples (3): 27 ±12 mcg/g [1]
The adult DRI of 150 mcg/day is attained with: ~10g (washed, dried, sodium: ~20mg)
The NZ Tolerable upper Limit is attained with: ~35g (washed, dried, sodium: ~55mg)
(DRI = Daily Recommended Intake, TUL = Tolerable Upper Limit, defined by NZ, as of 2010)

Wild samples (3):
Onehunga Bay, Auckland April 2004
Onehunga Bay, Auckland April 2004
Onehunga Bay, Auckland August 2004


 

Nori – Porphyra species – Karengo (Maori)

Nori – Porphyra species – Karengo (Maori)

Image credits: (left) Kim Westerskov;
(right) Wendy Nelson, NIWA

More info: http://www.marinelife.ac.nz/species/990
Wild samples (3): 64 ±21 mcg/g [1]
Commercial sample (1): 45.03 mcg/g [1] (within range of wild)

DRI for iodine (150 mcg/day) is attained with: ~4g (washed, dried, sodium: ~6mg)
TUL for iodine (1100 mcg/day) is attained with: ~13g (washed, dried, sodium: ~22mg)
(DRI = Daily Recommended Intake, TUL = Tolerable Upper Limit, defined by NZ, as of 2010)

Wild samples (3):
Nelson May-October 2004 (3)

Commercial sample (1):
Kaikoura Coast 2004


 

Wakame – Undaria pinnatifida – (not a native plant => no Maori name)

Wakame – Undaria pinnatifida

Image credits: © Jon Sullivan
Image cropped from original..
Cc by nc small some rights reserved

More info: http://www.marinelife.ac.nz/species/1053
Wild samples (3): 171 ±28 mcg/g [1]
Commercial sample (1): 100.67 mcg/g [1] (close to range of wild)

DRI for iodine (150 mcg/day) is attained with: ~1g (washed, dried, sodium: ~40mg)
TUL for iodine (1100 mcg/day) is attained with: ~5g (washed, dried, sodium: ~200mg)
(DRI = Daily Recommended Intake, TUL = Tolerable Upper Limit, defined by NZ, as of 2010)

Wild samples (3):
Nelson, April–September 2004 (3)

Commercial sample (1):
Wellington Harbour, 2004


 

Bull Kelp – Durvillaea antarctica – Rimurapa/Rimuroa (Maori)

Bull Kelp – Durvillaea antarctica - Rimurapa/Rimuroa (Maori)

Image credits: © lupra, all rights reserved

More info: http://www.marinelife.ac.nz/species/808
Wild samples (3): 291.9 ±270 mcg/g [1]

This seaweed has a very wide variation of iodine content. Only a tolerable upper limit can be given for the worst-case scenario.
That amount which should be safe in terms of avoiding excess can be in certain cases too low to meet daiy recommended value. This seaweed is safe for occasional seasoning, but not recommended to rely on safely as one’s daily only source of iodine.
TUL for iodine (1100 mcg/day) is attained with *potentially*: ~2g (washed, dried, sodium: ~100mg)

Wild samples (3):
Piha, Auckland, NZ , April 2004 (2)
Maori Bay, Auckland, NZ, in August 2004 (1)


 

SEAWEEDS WITH HIGH IODINE (FOR SEASONING)

Use only as seasoning: from the same way most people sprinkle salt or pepper, to rather the way toddlers would sprinkle super hot chilli pepper in their food 🙂


 

Neptune’s necklace – Hormosira  banksii  – (Maori name?)

Neptune's necklace - Hormosira banksii

Image credits: © Melissa Hutchison
Image cropped and levels adjusted from original..
Cc by nc small some rights reserved

More info: http://www.marinelife.ac.nz/species/862
Wild samples (3) : 1041 ±292 mcg/g [1]

DRI for iodine (150 mcg/day) is attained with: ~0,2g (washed, dried, sodium: ~10mg)
TUL for iodine (1100 mcg/day) is attained with: ~0,8g (washed, dried, sodium: ~50mg)
(DRI = Daily Recommended Intake, TUL = Tolerable Upper Limit, defined by NZ, as of 2010)

If you do not have a microgram scale, to visualise how much that is, start from a large amount that your scale can measure (i.e. 10g) and divide the pile of seaweed just visually and with your hands, until you divide enough to reach those values. Divide 10g ÷ 2 =5g, ÷5 =>1g, ÷5 => 0.2g, *4 = 0.8g

Wild samples (3):
Piha, Auckland April 2004
Ti Point, Leigh April 2004
Beaumont, Auckland August 2004


 

Bladder kelp – Macrocystis pyrifera – Rimurimu (Maori)

Bladder kelp – Macrocystis pyrifera – Rimurimu (Maori)

Image credits: © Sue Mcgaw
Image cropped from original.
Cc by nc small some rights reserved

More info: http://www.marinelife.ac.nz/species/894
Iodine concentrations reported:
2115.81 mcg/g* [1]

DRI for iodine (150 mcg/day) is attained with: ~0,07g (washed, dried, sodium: ~3mg)
TUL for iodine (1100 mcg/day) is attained with: ~0,5g (washed, dried, sodium: ~20mg)
(DRI = Daily Recommended Intake, TUL = Tolerable Upper Limit, defined by NZ, as of 2010)

* Commercial sample (1):
Tory Channel, near Nelson, NZ, 2003. (Sold as “kelp pepper”)


 

Paddle Weed – Ecklonia radiata – (Maori name?)

Paddle Weed – Ecklonia radiata

More info: http://www.marinelife.ac.nz/species/811

Wild samples (4): 3990 ±242 mcg/g [1]
Commercial samples (1): 3719.45 mcg/g [1] (within range of wild)

DRI for iodine (150 mcg/day) is attained with: ~0,04g (washed, dried, sodium: ~1mg)
TUL for iodine (1100 mcg/day) is attained with: ~0,25g (washed, dried, sodium: ~8mg)
(DRI = Daily Recommended Intake, TUL = Tolerable Upper Limit, defined by NZ, as of 2010)

You need a microgram scale if you want to visualize these amounts.

Wild samples (4):
Maori Bay, Auckland April 2004
Matheson Bay, Auckland April 2004
Beaumont, Auckland August 2004
Takapuna, Auckland August 2004

Commercial sample (1):
Wairarapa Coast 2004


 

Methods of calculation

Detail of the method used for calculating amounts of seaweed to attain adult DRI or TUL:
For DRI, the worst-case scenario is when the wild seaweed has the lowest possible average concentration.
This is because you want to have at least the DRI, so even the lowest concentration (in theory*) meets the needs.
Worst-case iodine concentration = Average of wild <minus> standard error (the number after ±)

For TUL, the worst-case scenario is when the wild seaweed has the highest possible average concentration.
This is because you want to not exceed the upper limit, so even the highest concentration (in theory*) meets the needs.
Worst-case iodine concentration = Average of wild <plus> standard error (the number after ±)

Then divide UL or DRI by worst-case concentration => How much covers the needs.

The sodium estimations are obtained in the following way: Average sodium concentration for that species <multiplied by> amount to meet DRI or TUL. The sodium quantities have their own standard error (small variations) but since the sodium amounts are extremely very low, high precision is irrelevant.

* There is no guarantee that seaweeds you may forage will match these number. They are quite likely too, but also may no. That means you can get “worse” with what you forage than my worst case-scenarios. Realistically, since people eat seaweed without caring at all to begin with, the guidelines and maximum edible amounts are very useful and far less risky than eating with no guideline.


 

Part 2/2 – THE STORY

Seaweeds are like Rome, all roads lead to them. I love to forage, to try new things in the kitchen, to try plant foods I never had, and to make sure people have the nutrients and health they need. These are some of many avenues where my insatiable curiosity roams to play, and each of them separately took me to seaweeds, like by enchantment. Can you imagine how fulfilling it can be walking by the beach and just snapping photos of seaweeds and intertidal species, going to the library to find books with pictures, learning to recognize, and then be foraging, preparing, something delicious and which takes an important place in nutrition? As fulfilling as falling in love for the first time. That is what life is all about, and I have yet a new lover. This time it is seaweeds!

Since transitioning to whole-food eating for evident health reasons, my partner and I no longer consume salt at home, like, interestingly, millions of other land-bound animal species that do very well without a salt shaker. Yes folks, sodium is of vital importance. What you may not know is that all the vital sodium you need, and far more than you need, is in all sorts of plant foods you eat, but we’ll keep the detailed story for another day, subscribe the RSS if you want to keep posted on new posts. Anyhow, since something as harmful as salt had been chosen as a vehicle for iodine fortification: if you skip the salt, you also skip the iodine, at least in iodine depleted soils like in New Zealand.
So we had three or really two choices:

  1. Replace the salt shaker by some sort of iodine supplement (in cooking, or as a tablet) but we had lost the salt shaker reflex and it is weird taking a pill each breakfast. You see, a cherry-flavoured vitamin B12 that melts in the mouth, once a week, is not a problem, but an iodine drug-like pill everyday, in a pill box and had with a glass of water, not for us…too medication-like.
  2. Rely on eating sea-animals (fishes, mollusks, etc…) but there’s a major problem with that.
    Recently, we fixed an urgently needed upgrade in our frankly standard and deficient knowledge on animal exploitation and the pressing issues related. Watch these documentaries Earthlings, Seaspiracy, Cowspiracy, to get a better idea what made us a bit less less ignorant on rather very important things. Anyway we decided it made complete sense to stay clear of intentionally killing/exploiting animals and better to instead just leave them alone along with the ecosystems they live in => Everything but sea animals, not even an option.
  3. Simpler, tastier, and far more fun: Learn to forage seaweeds! Go have a fun walk on the beach regularly, forage seaweeds and eat the right amount regularly. Use the right ones as a food and the right ones as a pepper (to sprinkle in small amounts).

Option #3 is very appealing now 🙂

Before that, my first approach was “iodine supplementation only” as can be appreciated in this article.  I was quite wary of variations in iodine content of seaweeds, some of which are enormous, and I did not want to take the risk. Having learned a bit more about seaweeds since that article, and a bit more about iodine acceptable intakes, I feel safe dropping the iodine supplement and relying more on locally foraged seaweeds. A decision like this is not done lightly and required good hands-on and knowledge on a few things:

  • knowing iodine concentrations in local seaweeds locally documented (so basically not something you read about “kombu” or “kelp” in general as a product, but science journals publishing iodine levels in clearly named and specific seaweed species harvested locally). That’s the only thing this article will help with.
  • a good ability to recognize exactly those species when foraging (not too hard but must be learned and practiced)
  • foraging safety (i.e. foraging fresh seaweeds instead of decaying ones, away from sources of pollution such as manufactures, landfills, sewage …)
  • nutritional awareness (safe levels of iodine).

Sources

[1] JL Smith , G Summers & R Wong (2010) Nutrient and heavy metal content of edible seaweeds in New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 38:1, 19-28, DOI: 10.1080/01140671003619290